In the lead acid storage battery industry, “acid” means “sulfuric acid” and is used to describe the electrolyte or liquid in the cell.
The materials in a battery which react chemically to produce electrical energy. In a lead-acid battery the active materials are lead dioxide (positive) and sponge lead (negative).
A type of non-woven separator material comprised almost entirely of glass microfibers that absorbs and retains the electrolyte leaving no free electrolyte in the cell to spill. VRLA batteries made with this material are often referred to as “AGM” batteries.
A charged negative plate that has been removed from the electrolyte and permitted to discharge in an air atmosphere with the evolution of heat. Plates so treated must be recharged before they are capable of producing any useful electrical energy.
An alkaline battery (IEC code: L) is a type of primary battery that derives its energy from the reaction between zinc metal and manganese dioxide. Size comparison of alkaline batteries (left to right): C, AA, AAA, N, PP3 (9-volt).
An electric, pulsating current, in which the direction of flow is rapidly changed, so that a terminal becomes in rapid succession positive then negative.
The temperature of the surrounding cooling medium, such as gas or liquid, which comes into contact with the heated parts of the apparatus, usually refers to room or air temp.
An instrument for measuring electrical current. See also “AMPERE-HOUR METER”.
The practical unit of electric current that is equivalent to the steady state current produced by one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm. It is one tenth of an abampere.
A measure of the volume of electricity, being one ampere for one hour, or 3600 coulombs. It is used to express battery capacity, and is registered by an ampere hour meter, or is obtained by multiplying the current in amperes by the length of time that the current is maintained.
The number of ampere-hours which can be delivered under specified conditions as to temperature, rate of discharge, and final voltage.
The electrochemical efficiency expressed as the ratio of the ampere-hours output to the ampere-hours input required for the recharge.
Lead antimony alloy is the most common alloy used in battery castings. The percentage of antimony varies from ½ percent to 12 percent. Other substances are also included in small quantities, either by way of a certain amount of inescapable impurity, or by design, to improve castings or to improve the properties of the cast part.
The process of combining the various parts of cells and batteries into the finished product. 2. Any particular arrangement of cells, connectors, and terminals to form a battery suited for a desired application.
(SLI) A battery made of 3 or 6 cells used for starting, lighting, and ignition of automobiles, trucks, buses, etc.
A storage battery is a connected group of two or more storage cells (common usage permits this term to be applied to a single cell used independently). Batteries are sometimes referred to as “Accumulators” since electric energy is accumulated by chemical reaction.
Cell. Battery. A cell is a single unit device which converts chemical energy into electric energy. A battery usually consists of group of cells. Depending on the types of electrolytes used, a cell is either reserve, wet or dry types.
Battery capacity is defined as the total amount of electricity generated due to electrochemical reactions in the battery and is expressed in ampere hours. For example, a constant discharge current of 1 C (5 A) can be drawn from a 5 Ah battery for 1 hour.
A term originally applied to a design of quarter turn vent plug, the lower portion of which resembles a bayonet, both in appearance and locking arrangement.
The blade battery is a battery product released by BYD on March 29, 2020. The battery uses lithium iron phosphate technology and will first be installed on the “汉” model.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology that uses a radio frequency to share data over a short distance, eliminating the need for wires. You can use Bluetooth on your mobile device to share documents or to connect with other Bluetooth-enabled devices.
All Battle Born Batteries have a built-in BMS. This protects against all of the most common causes of battery failures and dangers. These include protecting the cells against short circuits, high currents, excessive heat, cold, and high or low voltages. Battle Born’s built-in BMS also protects against faults.
A partial charge given to a storage battery usually at a high rate for a short period. It is employed in motive power service when the capacity of a battery is not sufficient for a full day’s work.
A plastic piece used at the foot of plate, especially a wrapped plate, for retention and insulation.
The ribs or elements structure, which is molded or cut to fit into the bottom of a ribless jar or container in order to provide sediment space under the element thereby preventing short circuits.
The welding together of two or more lead or lead alloy parts, such as plates, straps or connectors, by means of heat and in some cases additional metal, which is supplied by a stick called a burning strip.
A lead or lead alloy stick of convenient size that is used as a supply of joining metal in lead burning.
The finished “button shaped” area produced on the top surface of a connector or terminal by the post burning operation.
BYD Co. Ltd. (“Build Your Dreams” Chinese: 比亚迪股份有限公司) is a publicly-listed Chinese conglomerate manufacturing company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It was founded by Wang Chuanfu in February 1995. The company has two major subsidiaries, BYD Automobile and BYD Electronic. BYD Company focuses on automobiles, buses, electric bicycles, trucks, forklifts, solar panels and rechargeable batteries industries.
A metallic element highly resistant to corrosion, used as a protective plating on certain steel parts and fittings.
A third electrode, used for separate measurements of the electrode potential of positive and negative plate groups.
A lead base alloy that in certain applications can be used for battery parts in place of antimonial lead alloys. Most common use is in stationary cells.
The “Write CAN Message” option can be used to send a command or multiple commands to the BMS throughout a test procedure. Through CAN messages, the BMS can tell the test equipment to charge or discharge at a particular value of current, power, etc. Including dynamic control.
Finely divided carbon, obtained by burning a gaseous hydrocarbon under controlled conditions, which is used as an ingredient in negative expanders.
A metallic rod and insulated handle, mounting a pointed carbon rod; used for lead burning on service locations where the usual gas flame equipment is not available.
To form a molten substance into a definite shape by pouring or forcing the liquid material into a mold and allowing it to solidify (freeze).
A metallic item, such as one or more grids, straps or connectors, which is produced by pouring or forcing molten metal into a mold and allowing it to solidify.
Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited abbreviated as CATL is a Chinese battery manufacturer and technology company founded in 2011 that specializes in the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and energy storage systems, as well as battery management systems (BMS). With a market share of 32.6% in 2021, CATL is the biggest lithium-ion battery manufacturer for EVs in the world, producing 96.7 GWh of the global 296.8 GWh, up 167.5% year on year. The company plans to have a manufacturing capacity target of >500 Gwh by 2025 and >800 Gwh by 2030.
A storage (secondary) cell is an electrolytic cell due to the generation of electric energy, in which the cell, after being discharged, may be restored to a charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when the cell discharges.
The condition of a storage cell when at its maximum ability to deliver current. The positive plate contains a maximum of lead peroxide and a minimum of sponge lead and sulfate and the electrolyte will be at maximum specific gravity.
The process of converting electrical energy to stored chemical energy. In the lead‐acid system, charging converts the lead sulfate in the plates to lead peroxide or lead.
The male half of a quick connector which contains both the positive and negative leads.
A system of electrical components through which an electrical current is intended to flow. The continuous path of an electric current.
A circuit that provides more than one path for the flow of current. A parallel arrangement of batteries (usually of like voltages and capacities) has all positive terminals connected to a conductor and all negative terminals connected to another conductor. If two 12-volt batteries of 50 ampere-hour capacity each are connected in parallel, the circuit voltage is 12 volts, and the ampere-hour capacity of the combination is 100 ampere-hours.
A circuit that has only one path for the flow of current. Batteries arranged in series are connected with negative of the first to positive of the second, negative of the second to positive of the third, etc. If two 12-volt batteries of 50 ampere-hours capacity each are connected in series, the circuit voltage is equal to the sum of the two battery voltages, or 24 volts, and the ampere-hour capacity of the combination is 50 ampere-hours.
A “class 9 hazmat” is the term the DOT (Department of Transportation) uses to categorize any hazardous materials that don’t come in any of their more well-defined categories, such as explosives, flammables, corrosives, and so on.
The cold crank rating refers to number of amperes a lead-acid battery at 0°F (-17.8°C) can deliver for 30 seconds and while maintaining at least 7.2 volts (1.2 volts per cell). This is commonly referred to as CCA (Cold Cranking Amps).
A constant‐voltage charge of a storage battery is a charge in which the voltage at the terminals of the battery is held at a constant value.
A charge in which the current is maintained at a constant value. (For some types of lead-acid batteries this may involve two rates called a starting and a finishing rate.)
In electronics, copper shunt is a device which allows electric current to pass around another point in the circuit by creating a low resistance path.
The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. The positive lead grids in a battery gradually corrode in service often leading to battery failure. Battery terminals are subject to corrosion if they are not properly maintained.
Their main function consists in transporting materials with different size, shape and weight onto their forks. While lifting and transporting heavy loads, forklifts need additional weight to secure the counterbalance. Counterweights are added to prevent the forklift from tipping over.
The lid or cover of an enclosed cell generally made of the same material as the jar or container and through which extend the posts and the vent plug.
Lead or lead alloy rings, which are molded or sealed into the cell cover and to which the element posts are burned thereby creating an effective acid‐creep resistant seal.
A C-rate is a measure of the rate at which a battery is discharged relative to its maximum capacity. A 1C rate means that the discharge current will discharge the entire battery in 1 hour.
The travel of electrolyte up the surface of electrodes or other parts of the cell above the level of the main body of electrolyte.
Chinese battery giant CATL unveiled its Gen 3 cell to pack (CTP) technology which it claims can offer electric vehicles with 1,000km traveling distance per change. CTP is the company’s key technology that allowed it to win Tesla’s battery orders for the Model 3. Conventional batteries in EVs are made out of cells, modules and packs. But CATL’s technology makes cells into packs directly without a module. This allows for batteries to be packed in a vehicle, which allowed CATL to overcome lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery’s relatively lower energy density than NCM batteries.
The chemical conversion process changes lead oxides and sulfuric acid to mixtures of tetrabasic lead sulfate, other basic lead sulfates, basic lead carbonates, etc., which consequently will form desired structures of Pb or PbO² on negative or positive plates during formation.
The time rate of the flow of electricity, normally expressed as amperes, like the flow of a stream of water.
See “FINAL VOLTAGE”.
The dilution of a more concentrated solution of sulfuric acid to a lower concentration.
A system of encapsulating intercell connectors with compounds, such as epoxy, or polyurethane, to prevent accidental intercell shorts from external sources.
An electric test performed, on certain jars, containers, and other insulating materials, to determine their dielectric breakdown strength.
Batteries that are used to crank diesel engines. This function is similar to a gasoline engine’s application, except that greater demands are made for cranking power, and ignition is accomplished by the engine’s heat, without any further need for electric current.
A unidirectional current in which the changes in value are either zero or so small that they may be neglected.
Batteries discharged to meet any time rate between 3 hours and 8 hours are considered as having been normally discharged.
Li-ion batteries also have a far superior discharge curve such that the battery voltage falls very little until almost fully discharged, whereas for lead acid batteries, their voltage drops significantly throughout the discharge rate.
The condition of a storage cell when, as the results of delivering current, the plates are sulfated, the electrolyte is exhausted, and there is little or no potential difference between the terminals.
Depth of Discharge (DOD) refers to how much energy is cycled into and out of the battery on a given cycle. It’s expressed as a percentage of the total capacity of the battery. For those new the industry, DOD sounds like it may be a difficult topic to understand, but it’s actually simple.
Batteries discharged to meet any time rate between 3 hours and 8 hours are considered as having been normally discharged.
The electrochemical reaction which causes the decomposition of a compound, either liquid or molten in solution.
Any substance which disassociates into two or more ions when dissolved in water. Solutions of electrolyte conduct electricity and are decomposed by it. In the battery industry the word “electrolyte” implies a dilute solution of sulfuric acid.
An electronic device that assesses the condition of a battery through an ohmic measurement such as resistance or conductance, typically without drawing large current loads.
The specific gravity of a cell at the end of a prescribed (usually 6 to 8 hours) discharge.
An extended charge, which is given to a storage battery to insure the complete restoration of active materials in all the plates in the cells.
An addition agent either organic or inorganic or a mixture of both to be blended with the other ingredients for negative paste. The purpose of expanders is to delay shrinking and solidifying of the sponge lead of the finished plate, thereby enhancing negative plate capacity.
The cut‐off voltage of a battery; the prescribed voltage reached when the discharge is considered complete.
The rate of charge expressed in amperes to which the charging current for some types of lead batteries is reduced near the end of charge to prevent excessive gassing and temperature rise.
A discharge in which the cell or battery is discharged through a fixed resistive load. The current being allowed to fall off as the terminal voltage decreases.
A method used to improve the surface of a cast lead or lead alloy part or of trimmed battery sealing compound, in which a flame is passed over the surface causing the material to melt and flow smoothly together.
Application of a recharge at a very low rate and accomplished by connection to a buss whose voltage is slightly higher than the open circuit voltage of the battery.
The fluid should be about 1/2- to 3/4-in. above the internal “plates,” or about 1/2- to one-inch from the top of the battery (just to the bottom edge of the fill hole). If the fluid is below that, it needs to be topped off.
Any fixed terminal cable in which the terminal or plug end of the cable is unsupported and allowed to hang freely along the side of the battery.
An initial charging process during which the raw paste within the plates is electrochemically converted into charged active material, lead peroxide being formed in the positive plates and sponge lead in the negative plates.
A charge given to batteries in storage to replace the standing loss and to ensure that every plate in every cell is periodically brought to a full state of charge.
Vents for usually three adjacent cells which are connected to a common manifold. Typically used on SLl’s.
Electrolyte which has been immobilized by the addition of silica powder or other gelling agents.
Fabric made from glass fibers with a polymeric binder such as styrene, acrylic, furfural, or starch, which is used to help retain positive active material.
Gotion Hi-Tech Co., Ltd. ( Shenzhen Stock Exchange: 002074, referred to as Gotion Hi-Tech ) is a listed company on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in China. The company’s main business includes new energy vehicle power batteries and power transmission and transformation products.
The number of point reduction or drop that the specific gravity of the electrolyte makes upon discharge of the cell.
A metallic framework, employed in a storage cell or battery for conducting the electric current and supporting the active material.
The reference potential of a circuit. In automotive use, the result of attaching one battery cable to the body or frame of a vehicle that is used as a path for completing a circuit in lieu of a direct wire from a component. Today, over 99% of automotive and LTV applications use the negative terminal of the battery as the ground.
The reaction between water and lead or lead compounds. Lead does not react with strong solutions of sulfuric acid, but gravities lower than those found in discharged cells are apt to produce hydration. Hydration is observed as a white coating on both plate groups and separators in a cell.
The closed‐circuit voltage at the beginning of a discharge. It is usually measured after the current has flowed for a sufficient period for the rate of change of voltage to become practically constant.
Any source voltage applied at the input of a device or battery is called input voltage and the voltage or the energy given out by a device or battery is called output.
The abusing of lead or lead alloy molded or sealed into cell covers, forming the posthole, and to which the post is burned to create a creep‐resistant cover‐to‐post seal.
A conductor, made of lead, lead alloy or lead plated copper, which is used to connect to battery cells.
The JTM (Jelly to Module) integration technology process has “low cost, simple manufacturing process, and easy to form standardization”. JTM technology can make the monomer-to-module assembly efficiency exceed 90%. Using the lithium iron phosphate material system, the energy density of the module can be close to 200Wh/Kg, the system 180Wh/Kg, which can reach the level of high nickel ternary, and the cost of the module is only equivalent to the level of lead-acid batteries.
The lead–acid battery is the first type of rechargeable battery ever created. Compared to modern rechargeable batteries, lead–acid batteries have relatively low energy density and battery life. Despite this, their ability to supply surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, make them attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by starter motors.
A white compound of lead of indefinite composition formed by the reaction of very dilute electrolyte or water on metallic lead or lead alloys.
A general term used to describe any of finely divided lead oxides used to produce paste for storage batteries.
A metallic part that has had a thin protective layer of metallic lead electrodeposited on its surface.
A compound resulting from the chemical action of sulfuric acid on oxides of lead or lead metal itself.
Horizontal lines molded and/or painted near tops of battery jars, which indicate minimum and maximum electrolyte level.
The number of years of satisfactory float operation or the number of charge‐discharge cycles for motive power operation.
The minimum lifespan most manufacturers expect from lithium-ion batteries is around 5 years or at least 2,000 charging cycles. But, if well cared for and used in proper conditions, lithium-ion batteries can last as long as 3,000 cycles.
The LiFePO4 battery has the edge over lithium ion, both in terms of cycle life (it lasts 4-5x longer), and safety. This is a key advantage because lithium ion batteries can overheat and even catch fire, while LiFePO4 does not.
An extension of the side walls of a battery tray provided with a hole or slot, by means of which the battery can be lifted.
The most common combination is that of lithium cobalt oxide (cathode) and graphite (anode), which is most commonly found in portable electronic devices such as cellphones and laptops. Other cathode materials include lithium manganese oxide (used in hybrid electric and electric automobiles) and lithium iron phosphate.
An instrument that draws current (discharges) from a battery using an electrical load while measuring voltage. It determines the battery’s ability to perform under actual discharge conditions.
The loss of otherwise usable chemical energy by currents which flow within the cell of a battery regardless of its connections to an external circuit.
The capacity loss occurring in a cell or battery standing on open circuit as a result of local action.
Batteries should be charged after each period of use. Lead acid batteries do not develop a memory and do need not be fully discharged before recharging. Charge only in well-ventilated areas. Keep sparks or flames away from a charging battery.
Li-ion is a low-maintenance battery, an advantage many other chemistries cannot claim. The battery has no memory and does not need exercising to keep in shape. Self-discharge is less than half that of nickel-based systems. This makes Li-ion well suited for fuel gauge applications.
A capacity test wherein the connection and disconnection of the battery and the test load are done by the operator and the disconnection is made after all cells have reached the prescribed final voltage. With fixed resistance loads, boost cells are used to keep the discharge rate fairly constant as the test cells voltages drop fairly rapidly near the final voltage. Electronic load manual discharges generally do not require boost cells.
A battery designed for shipboard installation to provide energy for cranking service and the operation of emergency lighting, alarm, and communication equipment.
Maximum battery capacity measures the device battery capacity relative to when it was new. A battery will have lower capacity as the battery chemically ages which may result in fewer hours of usage between charges. usually considers any battery with a battery capacity of 80% or above to be in optimal condition.
Your battery’s maximum battery capacity goes down over time. New battery typically come with a 100% capacity, but charge cycles and potential damage (like exposing your phone to extreme temperatures) reduce the capacity. As your battery’s health declines, so does its ability to deliver maximum performance.
Either a veneer or a grooved type separator made of any material in which the pores are numerous and microscopically small.
A cycle service battery designed to operate mine locomotive, trammer, shuttle cars, and tunnel haulage equipment.
A charge in which the voltage of the charging circuit is held substantially constant; but a fixed resistance is inserted in the battery circuit, producing a rising voltage characteristic at the battery terminals as the charge progresses.
A cast iron or steel form which contains the cavity into which molten metal is introduced to produce a casting of definite shape and outline.
A preparation applied to metal molds in spray form which acts both as a mold release agent and as an insulator against rapid heat transfer.
See “MOLD COAT”.
Dendritic crystals of lead (Pb) which sometimes grow at high‐current density areas of negative plates, e.g. along edges, at feet, or at plate lugs. This may cause a short circuit within a cell.
A plastic or hard rubber perforate sheet which insulates the gaps between the negative plates and the positive strap, and between the positive plates and the negative strap.
The negative plate of a storage battery consists of the grid and active material to which current flows from the external circuit when the battery is discharging.
The negative terminal of a battery is the terminal toward which current flows (as ordinarily conceived) in the external circuit from the positive terminal.
A nickel metal hydride battery (NiMH or Ni–MH) is a type of rechargeable battery. The chemical reaction at the positive electrode is similar to that of the nickel–cadmium cell (NiCd), with both using nickel oxide hydroxide (NiOOH). However, the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. NiMH batteries can have two to three times the capacity of NiCd batteries of the same size, with significantly higher energy density, although much less than lithium-ion batteries.
Expresses the relationship between volts (V) and amperes (I) in an electrical circuit with resistance (R). It can be expressed as follows: V = IR [Volts (V) = Amperes (I) x Ohms (R)]. If any two of the three values are known, the third value can be calculated using the above equation.
Jar formation under conditions where the end of formation specific gravity is equal to the operating specific gravity.
The state of a battery when it is not connected to either a charging source or to a load circuit.
Open circuit voltage (OCV) is an important characteristic parameter of lithium-ion batteries, which is used to analyze the changes of electronic energy in electrode materials, and to estimate battery state of charge (SOC) and manage the battery pack.
Opportunity charging is a system that permits batteries to be charged several times during the work cycle (usually eight hours). This permits one battery to remain in the vehicle much longer than the traditional power sources. The objective is to eliminate the requirement to change spent batteries during a shift day.
An expander formulation which typically contains barium sulfate and a lignin type organic compound, along with small amounts of other materials.
Overcharging a lead acid battery can be just as harmful as undercharging it. If workers leave the battery in a continuously charging state for long periods of time, corrosion of the positive battery plates can occur. Lead acid batteries can also get very hot while charging.
Batteries output power when they are connected to a circuit. A battery that is not connected to a circuit provides no current and therefore outputs no power. However, once you have connected your battery to a circuit, you can determine power output by measuring the voltage drop across the load of the circuit.
A casting consisting of two or more grids which has been made simultaneously in a single mold.
The arrangement of cells within a battery in which two or more cells are connected across a common terminal so that any current flow divides itself between the connected cells.
See “PARALLEL ASSEMBLY”.
A term used to include all of the physical characteristics of the paste density, plasticity and texture.
The peak current is the maximum amount of current which output is capable of sourcing for brief periods of time. When a power supply or an electrical device is first turned on, high initial current flows into the load, starting at zero and rising until it reaches a peak value, known as the peak current.
The portion of pasted material contained in a grid section framed by adjacent horizontal and vertical members, exclusive of forming bars.
A thin sheet of perforated plastic material installed so as to cover each face of a positive plate to prevent the loss of active material. It is normally used in conjunction with one or more layers of glass insulating material.
See “LEAD PEROXIDE”.
LFP batteries use lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) as the cathode material alongside a graphite carbon electrode with a metallic backing as the anode. Unlike many cathode materials, LFP is a polyanion compound composed of more than one negatively charged element.
A selected cell of a storage battery whose temperature, voltage, and specific gravity are assumed to indicate the condition of the entire battery.
The distance between center lines of adjoining plates of opposite polarity in a cell. The plate center is, therefore, one-half of the size of a strap center upon which the plates of a like polarity are burned.
An electrical condition determining the direction in which the current tends to flow. By common usage the discharge current is said to flow from the positive electrode through the external circuit.
The change in voltage at the terminals of the cell or battery when a specified current is flowing, and is equal to the difference between the actual and the equilibrium (constant open circuit condition) potentials of the plates, exclusive of the IR drop.
The positive plate of a storage battery consists of the grid and the active material from which current flows to the external circuit when the battery is discharging.
The terminal from which current flows (as ordinarily conceived) through the external circuit to the negative terminal when the cell discharges.
A battery that can store and deliver electrical energy but cannot be recharged. A lead-acid battery is NOT a primary battery.
See “PIG LEAD”.
The ampere‐hours of discharge that can be removed from a fully charged secondary cell or battery, at a specific constant discharge rate, at a specified discharge temperature and at a specified cut off voltage.
Reconditioning is a process where a rechargeable battery undergoes several cycles to bring it back to a better capacity and reset its memory effect.
A rectifier is a device, which converts alternating current (AC) into unidirectional current (DC) by virtue of a characteristic permitting appreciable flow of current in only one direction.
The time in minutes that a new, fully charged battery will deliver 25 amperes at 27°C (80°F) and maintain a terminal voltage equal to, or higher than, 1.75 volts per cell. This rating represents the time the battery will continue to operate essential accessories if the alternator or generator of a vehicle fails.
The opposition that a conductor offers to the passage of an electrical current usually expressed in ohms.
A sheet of glass mat, perforated or slotted rubber or some other satisfactory material installed on each face of the positive plates in certain types of cells, to deter the loss of active material.
RS485 Card for BMS Interface – Pylontech Batteries
Via the communication between the inverter and lithium battery, it’s able to re-configure the charging voltage, charging current, battery discharge cut-off voltage and max. discharge current, according to the lithium battery parameters.
A manufacturing operation for attaching covers to jars by cement, sealing compound or thermal fusion.
An asphalt mixture of several types, differing in heat resistance, adhesion, and resistance to shearing. It is used for sealing cell covers to the jars or containers. See “COMPOUND”.
A battery that can store and deliver electrical energy and can be recharged by passing direct current through it in a direction opposite to that of discharge. A lead-acid battery is a secondary battery.
The leady sludge or active material shed by the plates and found in the bottom of the cells.
The portion of a jar or container compartment beneath the element, provided to accommodate a certain amount of sediment from the wearing of the plates, without short‐circuiting.
Self-discharge refers to self-running electrochemical processes which cause batteries (accumulators) to discharge more or less quickly, even if no electrical consumers are connected.
A device employed in a storage battery for preventing metallic contact between the plates of opposite polarity within the cell, while allowing passage of electrolyte.
See “MOSS SHIELD”.
An unintended current-bypass in an electric device or wiring. Outside the battery a short circuit is established when a conductive path is established between the two terminals of a battery. Inside a battery, a cell short circuit is the result of contact between the positive and negative plates and will cause a cell to discharge and render the battery useless.
Extremely fine, parallel glass fibers used, next to positive plates in retainers, to retard shedding.
The process by which the major portion of lead and antimony are recovered from scrapped batteries and battery manufacturing scrap.
A process, whereby certain types of plates are soaked in sulfuric acid after pasting. Soaking provides a protective surface and also a supply of sulfate helpful in jar and tank formation.
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) used to neutralize effluents containing sulfuric acid, or acid spills.
The shedding of active material, usually positives, during formation due to incomplete or improper plate curing.
A measure of the electrolyte concentration in a battery. This measurement is based on the density of the electrolyte compared to the density of water and is typically determined by the use of a hydrometer (see “HYDROMETER“). By definition, the specific gravity of water is 1.00 and the specific gravity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte in a typical fully charged battery is 1.265-1.285. Specific gravity measurements are typically used to determine if the battery is fully charged or if the battery has a bad cell.
Battery acid — and the corrosion that occurs when it leaks — is highly toxic and caustic. Alkaline batteries leak potassium hydroxide, a substance that can cause serious eye damage and respiratory and skin irritation.
The chief material of a fully charged negative plate. It is a porous mass of lead crystals.
The cell assembly operation wherein plates and separators are alternately piled in a burning box prior to cast‐ on or burning‐on of straps and posts.
The number of amperes at which the charging of a storage battery may be begun without producing gassing or bubbling of the electrolyte, or a cell temperature in excess of 110 ° F (43° C).
State of charge (SoC) is the level of charge of an electric battery relative to its capacity. The units of SoC are percentage points (0% = empty; 100% = full).
A precast or cast‐on piece of lead or lead alloy used to connect plates into groups and to connect the groups to the posts.
As applied to electrolyte, it is layers of high gravity acid in the lower portions of a cell, where they are out of touch with the ordinary circulation of the electrolyte and thus of no use.
A term used to describe any plate or cell whose active materials contain an appreciable amount of lead sulfate.
Sulfation occurs when a battery is deprived of a full charge, it builds up and remains on battery plates. When too much sulfation occurs, it can impede the chemical to electrical conversion and greatly impact battery performance.
In storage cells, the specific gravity and charging voltage vary inversely with temperature, while the open circuit voltage varies directly (though slightly) with temperature.
A length of insulated cable, one end is connected to the terminal post of a battery and the other end is fitted with a suitable device (plug, receptacle, lug, etc.) for connection to an external circuit.
The growth of a lead dendrite or filament through a hole, crack, or large pore of a separator, whereby the cell is short circuited.
A continuous charge at a low rate, approximately equal to the internal losses, and suitable to maintain the battery in a fully charged condition.
A positive battery plate made from a cast spine and porous tubes, which are filled with paste or dry oxide.
The period of time before a dry charged cell deteriorates to have less than a specified capacity.
UN Certified boxes are specifically designed in line with the UN standards for transporting dangerous goods by road, rail, air and sea. The amount of goods you’re permitted to carry in any individual box is determined by the maximum gross weight certification for that box, also known as its 4G or 4GV rating.
A term used to describe the condition of a battery assembled with formed plates but not yet having received its initial charge. This type of battery is classified as either uncharged and moist or uncharged and dry.
A condition in which a battery or cell may be shipped to a customer. This indicates that the battery is assembled with formed plates and dry separators without electrolyte. Filling and a charge are required.
A condition in which a battery or cell may be shipped to a customer. Adopted by BCI and indicates that the battery is assembled with formed plates and moist or wet wood separators, without electrolyte. Filling and a long charge are required.
A term used to describe any plate which has not been electrolytically formed; it may be dry or moist, cured or uncured, soaked or unsoaked.
A device used to fill cells in the charging room in which a vacuum is used to withdraw the air displaced by the filling electrolyte.
A cell venting device consisting of a ceramic vent stone and filler funnel assembled on a threaded or a quarter turn bayonet base.
See “VENT PLUG”.
The piece or assembly of pieces used to seal the vent and filling well of a cell cover, except for a small hole in the plug itself, which permits gas to escape. Vent plugs are usually held in place either by threads or by a quarter turn catch (bayonet vent caps) or by a snap‐in fit.
The hole or holes in a cell cover through which gas escapes, fluids are added or the electrolyte is checked. The vent plug or vent assembly fits into the vent well.
The vibration testing procedure, sine vibration testing uses a single sinusoidal tone following simple harmonic motion input to the test specimen. This sinusoidal tone can be swept across the test frequency range, or it can be fixed on a single frequency, depending on the requirement.
The practical unit of measurement of electromotive force or potential difference required to send a current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm.
The ratio of the average voltage of cell or battery during discharge to the average voltage during its subsequent recharge.
The difference of potential which exists between the terminals of a cell or battery, or any two points of an electric current.
The net difference in the electrical potential (voltage) when measured across a resistance or impedance (ohms). Its relationship to current is described in Ohm’s law.
The difference between the maximum and minimum cell voltages that exist within a battery or a string of cells, when all of the cells are charging or discharging.
Valve Regulated Lead Acid battery. AGM and Gel are the two types of VRLA batteries. These batteries have no “free” liquid electrolyte and in the cell operate on the oxygen recombination cycle, which is designed to minimize water loss. VRLA batteries feature valves that have a one-way, pressure-relief design. These low-pressure valves prohibit air entering the cell while permitting gases to vent from the cell if necessary. The pressure maintained in the battery, though only very slight, is required to facilitate the oxygen recombination reaction, which converts the oxygen generated at the positive plates back into water.
As more water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen gases, the water level inside the battery drops. This is why most lead acid batteries need to be “watered” — have distilled or de-ionized water added to the electrolyte fill well — periodically to ensure proper function.
A measure of energy or work accomplished, being the product of the rate of work in watts and the time in hours, or the product of ampere hours and the average voltage.
The number of watthours which can be delivered under specific conditions as to temperature rate of discharge and final voltage.
The energy efficiency expressed as the ratio of the watthour output to the watthours of the recharge.
An electric motor that measures and registers electrical energy in watthours (or kilowatt hours).
Most lead acid batteries are heavy; the average weight for a car battery is 17 kg (39 lbs) and more than half of the weight is lead. Industrial batteries used to power mobile equipment can weigh upwards of 1,500 lbs (680 kg).
lithium-ion batteries weigh approximately 26 lbs(12 kg) each. Some lithium-ion batteries that have more amp hours weigh more, but the average weight of lithium-ion batteries is 26 pounds.Lithium batteries have a much higher energy density than lead-acid. The higher energy density is a huge benefit for mobile use cases because space and weight are limited. For the same amount of energy in lead-acid, lithium batteries weigh less than one-quarter the weight!
The period of time a wet secondary cell can be stored before its capacity has fallen to the point that the cell cannot be easily recharged.